Dustin Ingram


The Problem #

One of the questions that I see come up relatively often within the Python Packaging ecosystem is related to dependencies. It often takes many forms:

How can I produce a dependency graph for Python packages?

Why doesn’t PyPI show a project’s dependencies on it’s project page?

How can I get a project’s dependencies without downloading the package?

Can I search PyPI and filter out projects that have a certain dependency?

Essentially, all these questions are asking the same thing, and often the answers to these questions are not quite what a user wants to hear, mostly because they don’t usually sound like a “yes” and more like a “it can’t be done”.

Since it might not be immediately clear why it can’t always be done, and why, sometimes, it can, I’m going to attempt to explain some common “missed-conceptions” that are fundamental to understanding how Python package dependencies work.

What is setup.py? #

For most folks, setup.py is a familiar name. For new users, though, this file can often be confusing, so much so that there is even a highly-voted StackOverflow question called, appropriately, “What is setup.py?”

While some of the confusion comes from elsewhere, the main thing to note is that while setup.py often looks very similar from one project to another, at the end of the day, it is just another Python script.

This leads us to the next question:

What is the difference between setup.py and requirements.txt? #

This question is a common enough question about Python packaging that it has already been answered by Donald’s definitive blog post on the subject. However, there’s something more to consider here when it comes to getting dependencies up on PyPI:

This means that setup.py can possibly give us non-deterministic dependencies.

What do you mean by “non-deterministic dependencies”? #

For example, let’s define the smallest setup.py possible:

from setuptools import setup

    description='A nondeterministic package',

This is pretty straightforward. Now, let’s make it nondeterministic:

+ import random
from setuptools import setup
+ dependency = random.choice(['Schrodinger', 'Cat'])

    description='A nondeterministic package',
+     install_requires=[dependency],

Now, attempting to install our paradox will sometimes install Schrodinger as a dependency, and sometimes it will install his cat.

Why would I want non-deterministic dependencies? #

Making your package install different dependencies using random.choice() is a great way to upset your users, but not a great way to write Python packages.

While this type of nondeterministic dependency might not make sense, it might make a lot of sense to install different dependencies based on the state of the installing user’s system – maybe Linux users get Package A, while Windows users get Package B instead.

So, why can’t PyPI know my project’s dependencies? #

At this point, you should be able to answer this question yourself!

Since the package author can do anything to come up with a list of dependencies, given the current ecosystem, there’s no way an index like PyPI could reliably take into account all the intricacies of your package installation process and determine what they will be.

At this point, you may be asking yourself what can be done to fix this.

First, consider that the current status quo is not necessarily broken: having a setup.py which can install dependencies based on literally anything is a feature that has enabled better compatibility across an increasingly broad spectrum of platforms.

However, this is annoying for a lot of people: it’s annoying for the ninety-something percent of package maintainers that have a reliable and known set of dependencies for their package, and just want a dependency graph, or to see a list of projects that depend on their project, etc.

One way to be able to “predict” the dependencies of a package is to severely limit some of the variables that are commonly used to determine which dependencies to install, like Python version, platform, etc. This is essentially what the wheel format is, and it’s why there is some dependency information available on PyPI.

Implementing new specifications like PEP 517 will pave the way for dependency specification in a more sane way, and will allow tools like pip and PyPI to extract dependency information from source distributions as well as wheels.